The functions of society, social facts, and the collective life according to Emile Durkheim.

Summary: What does it mean to exist? Emile Durkheim proposed that humans don’t exist, they belong. We are social beings. This began the field of sociology under the premise that society functions to offer belonging and becoming while being a dominant force for human existence and understanding. This is important because it means humans are formed by society. It also means that society can be impacted by humans who intend on paying attention.

Photo by hybridnighthawk on Unsplash
  • The premise of sociology — the social nature of human beings.
  • The functions of society — belonging and becoming (including George Herbert Mead’s “The Social Self,” Urie…

One thing you can do to exponentially increase your propensity to learn.

Photo by Hermes Rivera on Unsplash

The practice being offered only applies to those of you who do not know everything. The number of people in this category — according to social media — is drastically decreasing.

Yet, for those of us who are finite in our cognitive and conscious ability and who have a limited amount of experience of the vast, infinite universe, the following recommendation may be suitable.

For us humans, in order to increase our potential for learning and our capacity for curiosity, we must find a way to transcend the singular viewpoint that we possess.

If you’ve already arrived at the full…

I can’t save the world. What, then, should I do?

Photo by Lara Natalia on Unsplash

The resounding note of experiencing Central America and being immersed in a culture that appears to be quite distinct from my own is that the world is vastly more interconnected, interdependent, and commonly bound than we might suppose.

Though the geographical and cultural differences are so apparently obvious — a common summation of any cross-cultural experience — there is a disturbing mutuality that weighs on perceptive eyes.

Conclusions concerning the stark differences amidst collective consciousness, however, are less decisive.

The Question Resulting From Seeing the World

In a region such as Central America, there is, at once, an austere beauty; a romanticized visualization of assumed primal simplicity…

It’s about more than being right — it’s about survival.

Photo by engin akyurt on Unsplash

The history of philosophy often feels like an endless cycle of people trying to figure out how we can achieve certainty only to conclude that it is impossible.

Unfortunately, the consensus appears to be that humans — though conscious, sentient beings — don’t have all the information.

Yet, we argue, debate, and disagree with one another as if we held the objective truth of reality; defending ourselves from the needless antagonism of lesser, inferior opposition who appear set to simply destroy truth.

Well, at least our version of the truth.

If the inherent nature of our perspective is that it…

The best way to turn a disagreement into a constructive possibility.

Photo by Shoeib Abolhassani on Unsplash

An unfortunate situation that regularly occurs is one where I set off the religious sensibilities of certain strains of Christianity.

As it goes, I work at a strange, unordinary, yet quite orthodox rural church. Occasionally, I will say something that theologically rubs someone the wrong way.

These are often people I know and have relationships with. After all, rural communities are known for their desolate populations and small-town gossip where everyone thinks they know everyone else. Yet cordial smiles do not prevail against cognitive bias and such folks will proceed to approach me with what feels like boxing gloves on…

If you don’t know everything, you ought to give this conflict resolution technique a try.

Photo by Dariusz Sankowski on Unsplash

Meet in the woods, pull out a piece of paper, learn everything you can about the woods from the other, and leave with a fuller map of reality than when you started.

If you are like me, you win all sorts of arguments all the time — in your head.

Seriously, when I am arguing with someone else but it is actually just me talking to myself, I’m so good.

In fact, I’ve only lost about six arguments that I’ve had with other people in my head.

Pretty solid record.

Really, however, there is a common progression to actual arguments…

An open letter to high school graduates. Fortunately, your story is just getting started.

Photo by CDMA on Unsplash

Graduation from high school was one of the most uneventful experiences of my life.

I imagine there are some who, when they were told in-person schooling was done for the foreseeable future due to COVID, they celebrated. Believe it or not, there are high schoolers who wake up and battle whether they should go to school or commit suicide. As parents and popular kids mourned the loss of prom, sporting events, and the magical experiences of high school — other kids felt like they were given a pass from a life and world they dreaded every moment of.

Believe it or not, high school is not wonderful, meaningful, or beneficial for all who walk…

Dissecting the details of one of Jesus’ most famous stories.

Photo by Karim MANJRA on Unsplash

Luke 10:25–29 — The Introduction

I am of the opinion that you cannot understand the parable commonly referred to as “The Good Samaritan” without reading the introduction that the author gives you to clearly let you know what the parable is about.

Can we glean good moral conduct and principles from the narrative? Sure.

But the author of the Gospel of Luke has a particular trajectory in mind with this fascinating parable.

What’s the biggest secret to unlocking the depth and complexity of the Bible?

Actually reading what it says would be a pretty solid start.

Otherwise, you’re going to have to guess and make…

The only advice I can offer as your journey continues after high school.

Image used with permission from

Dear Graduate:

Psychologists say that the human brain has two major seasons of development.

The first is when you are young — the prenatal and early childhood stages. Psychologists frequently discuss the necessity of developing a baby’s brain when they are young and prescribe that you ought to read to them, play imaginatively with them, and engage their motor skills because, for those first couple years, you have a small window of opportunity to establish the foundation of their brain.

The implication is that whatever isn’t established in those early years, the opportunity to manifest such exponential development, is now gone; the…

Pursuing what it means to be human so as to build the best world possible. Practical ethics through in-depth exploration. Becoming Human:

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store